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*B4C Business for Change Bridge Seminar 2017  

Last Updated: Oct 31, 2017 URL: Print Guide RSS Updates

Organization of Materials Print Page

Classification of Resources

Check out this video on "Primary, Secondary, Tertiary Resources" from the Beam Library at Oklahoma Christian University.

PRIMARY: materials represent an original work (text, painting, or item) and/or document an event at its occurence (photograph, diary entry, or letter).

SECONDARY: sources are analyses of, commentary on, critiques about, or responses to Primary Sources. Reputable secondary materials have been well-vetted via the peer-reviewed process.

TERTIARY: items are often compilations of excerpts from Secondary Sources and can be used to identify themes or threads pertaning to concepts in a discipline. While subject-specific encyclopedias and dictionaries are ideal for supplemental information about a topic, these types of tertiary sources should only be consulted for initial research and not for citation.


Using Tertiary Sources


  • Overview   -   Gain a broad understanding of your topic
  • Definitions - Be an informed reader
  • Notable Names - Know the major players
  • Dates & Events - Contextualize your topic
  • Bibliographies - Fish those citations!

 General Encyclopedias


Types of Periodicals

Scholarly Journals, magazines, newspapers, and trade publications: what's the difference?

Check out this video on "Magazines and Scholarly Journals" from the University of Arkansas Libraries.

POPULAR SOURCES: Popular sources contain articles on topics of popular interest written in a non-scholarly style, while journals contain articles of original research and commentary including footnotes and works cited. Avoid citing popular magazine articles in your work. If a magazine article contains compelling information, look for references in the article and then locate that reference source for use in your assignment.

TRADE PUBLICATIONS: Trade journals are aimed at readers who operate within a specific industry. Some journals are accessable online for free, and others require a subscription. The EKS Library provides access to databases that contain articles from an array of trade publicaitons.

SCHOLARLY JOURNALS: are peer-reviewed or refereed journals. Prior to publication, articles undergo a critical review process by experts / referees on the subject who evaluate the quality of the research. 


Specialized Tertiary Sources: Print

Cover Art
Encyclopedia of Business in Today's World - Charles Wankel (Editor)
Call Number: Reference HF1001 .E4665 2009
ISBN: 9781412964272
Publication Date: 2009-06-12

Cover Art
21st Century Economics - Rhona C. Free (Editor)
Call Number: Reference HB171 .A19 2010
ISBN: 9781412961424
Publication Date: 2010-05-14


Library of Congress Organization

Most academic libraries use the Library of Congress system. The system is fairly easy to understand if you know how to read it.

Books are assigned a main subject, and then divided into sub-subjects as needed.

Library of COngress Main Subject Headings

Items are then divided into sub-headings:

LOC subject Heading D with sub-headings

Finally books are further divided into even more specific subject headings:

LOD numerical subject headings

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